Identity theft is becoming an increasingly common problem in Pakistan, as fraudsters discover more and more ways to get hold of the information which is required to steal someone’s identity.
Identity theft rarely involves the unauthorized taking of a victim’s personal possessions, however it does involve the perpetrator of the crime taking the victim’s personal information and then using this in an unauthorized way for their own personal gain.
Any time that a criminal gets hold of a piece of your information, and then uses that information for their own personal gain, it can be considered to be identity theft. Criminals can even use seemingly harmless pieces of information, such as your date of birth, to commit identity theft.
Cyber bullying or cyber harassment is a form of bullying or harassment using electronic means. It has become increasingly common, especially among teenagers. Harmful bullying behavior can include posting rumors, threats, sexual remarks, a victims’ personal information, or pejorative labels (i.e., hate speech).
Bullying or harassment can be identified by repeated behavior and an intent to harm. Victims may have lower self-esteem, increased suicidal idealization, and a variety of emotional responses, including being scared, frustrated, angry, and depressed. Cyber bullying may be more harmful than traditional bullying.
Internet trolling is a common form of bullying over the Internet in an online community (such as in online gaming or social media) in order to elicit a reaction or disruption.
Cyber stalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, group, or organization.It may include false accusations, defamation, slander and libel. It may also include monitoring, identity theft, threats, vandalism, solicitation for sex, or gathering information that may be used to threaten, embarrass or harass.
Cyber stalking is often accompanied by real time or offline stalking. In many jurisdictions, both are criminal offenses. Both are motivated by a desire to control, intimidate or influence a victim. A stalker may be an online stranger or a person whom the target knows. He may be anonymous and solicit involvement of other people online who do not even know the target.
Money laundering is the process of transforming the profits of crime and corruption into ostensibly “legitimate” assets. In a number of legal and regulatory systems, however, the term money laundering has become conflated with other forms of financial and business crime, and is sometimes used more generally to include misuse of the financial system (involving things such as securities, digital currencies, credit cards, and traditional currency), including terrorism financing and evasion of international sanctions.
Most anti-money laundering laws openly conflate money laundering (which is concerned with source of funds) with terrorism financing (which is concerned with destination of funds) when regulating the financial system.
Financial fraud can be broadly defined as an intentional act of deception involving financial transactions for purpose of personal gain. Fraud is a crime, and is also a civil law violation. Many fraud cases involve complicated financial transactions conducted by ‘white collar criminals’ such as business professionals with specialized knowledge and criminal intent.
Fraudsters can contact their potential victims through many methods, which include face- to-face interaction, by post, phone calls, SMS and/or emails. The difficulty of checking identities and legitimacy of individuals and companies, the ease with which fraudsters can divert visitors to dummy sites and steal personal financial information.
Malware, short for malicious software, is an umbrella term used to refer to a variety of forms of hostile or intrusive software, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransom ware, spyware, adware, scare ware, and other malicious programs. It can take the form of executable code, scripts, active content, and other software.
Malware is defined by its malicious intent, acting against the requirements of the computer user — and so does not include software that causes unintentional harm due to some deficiency. Programs supplied officially by companies can be considered malware if they secretly act against the interests of the computer user.